New ideas and concepts should be tested and validated before they are implemented. This can be done in various ways. Focus groups can be used to discuss the validity of a concept with employees. The persona method can be used in the same way, with an emphasis on different user types. The spatial consequences of the ABW concept can be tested by means of design prototyping. Real-life testing can be done throughpilot projects. Focus groups OutcomesA focus group is a small group of specially selected Validation of the usability and relevance of employees who are asked to review and discuss the ABWspecific ideas and solutionsconcept during the development and implementationRecommendationsprocess. It is a test panel that can be used to validate the A group size of 10 to 15 persons will usually usability of ideas and particular design solutions from asuffice: large enough to incorporate diverse voices and small enough for the informal user perspective. Members of a focus group are usuallyexchange of ideas.selected from a cross section of the organization. An Include not only enthusiasts, but also alternative approach is to select lead users: users who arescepticsalthough all participants should have a constructive attitude. a step ahead of the others. In both cases it will be important Ensure proper facilitation and training of the to prep the focus group about the nature of ABW beforefocus group.they are asked to respond to it. Make sure that the group is not dominated by a few loud voices. Every participant should be able to put forward his or her ideas.Development of personas OutcomesThe persona method is a technique in which ideas can be Qualitative insights into the needs of different tested and developed by looking at the needs of typical,user typesfictional personas. Examples of such personas might be Validation of the concepts usabilitya manager, an administrative worker, or an employee in aRecommendationswheelchair. For each persona it is possible to develop a Avoid making personas too stereotypical and simplistic. user journey through the new work environment. What is Make sure that personas are grounded in reality the first thing they do when they enter the office? Whichby using data (from interviews, workshops, spaces do they use and what do they do there? Whatdesk research) as input.technologies and equipment do they use? By drawing up a detailed description of such a user journey it is possible to validate the concept from the perspective of different user types with different needs.47