Co-working is a membership-based office concept in which memberstypically freelancers and small businessesget access to workspaces, office facilities and services in return for a monthly fee. As in the ABW concept, the range of spaces tends to be diverse and members can choose to work where they want. The main difference is that co-working is an out-of-house concept in which people from different companies make use of the same spaces and facilities, while ABW is an in-house concept. The lines are blurring, however. Some organizations are creating their own co-workspaces, aiming for synergies with external parties such as start-ups. Other organizationsCo-work offices are like a hybrid of a cafe, a provide their employees with corporate co-workserviced office and a community space. The memberships so they can work in co-workspaces facilities provided are just as important as the and be part of a more diverse environment.sense of community on offer. Smart offices and proptechTo an increasing extent, office buildings are equipped with various kinds of sensors that measure how the building is being used. Such buildings are referred to as smart offices and the technologies used are called proptech (property technology). The sensors can automatically detect who is in the building and which work and meeting spaces are being used. Employees can use their phones to locate colleagues, find available workstations, book meeting rooms, adjust the lighting levels in a space, rate the quality of spaces, and create service tickets if something is wrong with a space. For users, this can make office life easier, especially in an activity-based office where everybody isSensors can be used to monitor where people mobile. A point of concern is whether the use of sensorsare and where there are available workspaces. infringes on peoples privacy rights.Both kinds of information can help staff to navigate an ABW office. Healthy officesHealth and well-being are currently big themes in workplace design (although not exactly new for anyone who remembers the sick building syndrome of the 1990s). The central idea is that buildings should be designed in such a way that they have a positive impact on peoples mental and physical well-being. Much of this relates to indoor climate: acoustics, daylight access, air quality and thermal comfort. Because of the Corona crisis, hygiene can be added to this list as a crucial topic (see page 35). Other relevant concepts are biophilia (bringing natural elements like plants into the office and using natural materials like wood) and active design (design solutions that promoteBiophilic elements, like plants, are likely to have movement, for example by creating attractive stairs). Thepositive impact on peoples well-being in the idea of encouraging movement fits neatly into the ABWoffice, making it a more natural and less artificial philosophy as the sharing of workspaces requires a higherenvironment.level of staff mobility in the office. 20