Ask team members to share their schedules and calendars, so that everyone knows where and when theirThe social psychologist Irwin Altman colleagues are working; theorized in the 1970s that peoples sense of territoriality is dependent on two factors:Create rules concerning peoples availability/accessibility(1) how central a place is in a persons life, and (e.g. availability via chat during work hours); (2) how much time a person spends there. 69Provide easy-to-use tools for sharing files andHe distinguished three types of territories.communication (video, chat, voice) and make sure thatPrimary territory Private places where those tools are used; the owner has Have set meetings and social rituals (e.g. eating lunchexclusive rights to use the space (e.g. a place together when at the office); in the home).Pay added attention to newcomers who do not yet know their colleagues and may have troubleliterately andSecondary territory Semi-public places figurativelyin finding their way around the office. where a person interacts with acquaintances or Territorial behaviour peers on a regular In ABW offices some users may try to claim certainbasis (e.g. a local pub).workplaces in the office as their ownfor example, byTertiary territory Public spaces where leaving personal items, such as a jacket or papers, at aalmost anyone is workstation to signal that it is theirs while not using it. allowed temporary This is a natural tendency, but it restricts other access, providing they observe the relevant employees choice. regulations (e.g. a public park).Make sure that all the standard workstations are of equal qualitythere is no need for competition for desksThe first type of territory will raise the strongest resistance when it has to be shared, the third or desk envy when everything is of the same (good)one the weakest. Work areas can be seen as quality; secondary territories: places where it is nice Formulate guidelines for how spaces should be used or convenient to have a regular seat, but not a (e.g. stating that people must clear a workstation whenmust.they expect to be away for more than 2 hours);Make sure that managers lead by example (and not treat focus rooms or meeting rooms as their private office);Make sure that switching between spaces is easy by providing easily adjustable furniture and wireless technologies;Emphasize that clearing ones desk is not just a matter of following rules, but more especially of being considerate of your colleagues;Ask the cleaners to clear all desks at the end of the day.Availability of spacesClosely related to the issue above, is anxiety about the availability of workspaces, which may result in people going to the office earlier so as to be able to get a good work spot. It happens, but there should be no need for such behaviour. A well-designed ABW office should offer plenty of good seating possibilities, even during peak hours. Make sure that the sharing ratio isnt too tight. Avoid regular occupancy levels over 70% (see alsopage 63);Create overflow areas to deal with peak occupancies (e.g. informal work settings in the restaurant and otherLinking workplace sensors to a smart phone break areas); app gives employees access to live data about Make a clear distinction between bookable spaces which workstations are in use and which are not, so they spend less time looking for available and non-bookable spaces; workstations. (photo: Mapiq)34